To preserve their skills heritage, and develop versatility, companies of all sizes or fields of activity, wonder about the best way to organize the transfer of knowledge. Retirements, turnover, the unpredictable departures of employees with crucial professional capacities, the upheavals associated with global competition, downsizing, precipitated the need to entrench the transfer of skills in the daily practices of companies. The promotion of incentives for the transfer of skills from seniors to juniors (jobs for the future, etc.) is presented by our policy-makers as one of the solutions to the crisis in employment.
For several decades, driven by competition and the demands of their quality management systems, companies have undertaken to memorize their know-how. ISO standards require, among other things, the formalization in writing of processes, procedures, work instructions, etc. However, this provision, if necessary, is not sufficient to carry out the transfer of powers. It often happens that it is counterproductive. Indeed, by dint of multiplying the recordings, the imposing system, like a well-stocked library, inspires at the same time the admiration and the perplexity of the observers. How is it possible for all members of the company to master this voluminous content?
It is well known that knowledge is particularly difficult to transmit . For it to be sustainable, the transfer must be organized from the highest level of the company because it requires behavioral changes that have a decisive impact on the culture of organizations. In other words, some cultures are better predisposed than others to grow their skills.
This contribution is based on the learning model of Thomas Gordon and Noël Burch  . It identifies the main pitfalls that can be encountered in any development process. This section proposes a structured approach to the success of a learning enterprise.
 Described as “four steps to learn any new skill,” the theory was developed at Gordon Training International by his employee Noel Burch during the 1970s. Thomas GORDON (1918-2002) was a clinical psychologist And a colleague of Carl Rogers. It is recognized as a pioneer of communication techniques. The model he developed is known as the Gordon Model, a comprehensive and integrated system for establishing and maintaining effective relationships.
The learning model of Thomas Gordon and Noël Burch.
Inspired by the allegory of Plato’s cave, this model suggests that the human beings are initially unaware of their shortcomings. In the beginning, we are unaware of our non-skills (or incompetence) (state 1 on the graph) . While we recognize our inabilities (2), we become conscious of new skills , to carry consciously (3) . Subsequently , when the skills are practiced withoutConsciousness , it is said that the person has become expert. The skills mastered end up becoming unconscious (4).
Think about how you learned how to make your laces.
· In 1, you do not know that you do not know how to make your lace (your mom does it for you, not even need to worry about it).
· In 2, because you are “invited” to manage on your own, you realize that you do not get there and that you have to learn.
· In 3, by dint of repeating conscientiously the gesture, you know – better-in-better – make your laces by yourself.
· In 4, you can even do your laces without thinking (by watching the milk pan on the fire, for example).
The background: A master and a disciple.
It takes time to transfer the skills of the company and it is this time that is missing the most.
The transfer of skills is similar to the transfer of assets; A sort of inheritance of knowledge. In order for it to be realized correctly, the legatee must agree to give and the heir must agree to receive it. This implies that everyone’s role must be understood, assumed and accepted by both parties. But the transmission of knowledge is more complicated than that of heritage because, in addition to the nature of the skills to be transmitted (the substance), the way of transmitting (form) is decisive for the success of the operation. The metaphor of the master and the disciple is therefore preferred to that of the inheritance. Moreover, for an effective transfer of competences, the legatee must remain alive … which is not absolutely necessary in the case of transfer of assets.
For greater clarity, let us specify the missions of the two actors involved in the transfer of skills.
The master must be understood as being the one who is a school, the one who represents a model, a guide, an initiator. The disciple is the person who receives the teaching of a teacher whose teaching and doctrine he welcomes.
To successfully transmit knowledge, attention should be paid to the following situations:
On the Master’s side:
For the duration of this project each “legatee” agrees to become and assume the role of master. However, this role can be difficult to assume when it has to overlap with a long tradition of hierarchical power.
For each of his disciples, the teacher must make an effort to identify the nature of what should be transferred. Indeed, since this information is no longer available to the master’s consciousness (state 4 of the learning cycle), he will have to appeal to his lucidity to:
On the side of the Disciple:
For the duration of this project, each “heir” agrees to become the disciple of one or more masters.
The task of identifying the skills to be acquired is more difficult because the disciple is known to ignore the extent of his / her deficiencies (state 1 of the learning cycle).
In order to optimize the course of his learning cycle, the disciple must contribute to the development of a constructive relationship with the teacher. This relationship must leave a large place to the behaviors of cooperation, curiosity, audacity, listening; And to moderate any tendency towards competition, power, opposition, perfectionism, conformism, avoidance …
The form . Pedagogy: the aesthetics of the transfer
The transfer operation takes place through the relationship established between the two parties. The aesthetic of the transfer takes shape from the pedagogical qualities of the teacher. This aesthetics is essential to the success of the transmission of knowledge. It is through his way of doing things that the teacher stimulates the student’s learning dynamics and encourages the spread of knowledge. In order to measure the progress of the process, it will be up to the teacher to ensure that this dynamic progresses by evaluating, by whatever means he deems appropriate, the degree of acquisition of the thing transferred.
Since the success of this assignment depends strongly on the personality of the relationship, there are no bad masters or bad pupils, but only more or less compatible pairs.
|The Master TRANSFER The Disciple|
Summary of the ” Companions of Knowledge” approach
Successful transfer: constructive reframing
Difficult transfer: the 3rd repetition The third repetition of the same message, is a pregnant indicator of “loss online”. From this alert, the teacher and the disciple must give themselves time to identify the causes of the non-transfer. Without this effort, they run the risk of a dialogue of the deaf (unconscious) .
The mission of EXPERIENCE-COUNCIL
Stimulate the development of organizations through the emotional intelligence of executives.